Minggu, 25 September 2011

History of Linux

Linux or GNU / Linux is a free operating system that is very popular. The term Linux or GNU / Linux (GNU) is also used to refer to the whole circular Linux (Linux distribution), which included selalunya programs other than the Operating System. Examples are programs such as Web server, Pengaturcaraan Languages, Databases, Persekitaran Desktop (Desktop environment) (such as GNOME and KDE), and office suites (office suite) as OpenOffice.org. Circular-circular Linux has experienced rapid growth in terms of popularity, so the more popular version of UNIX that propritari (proprietary) and the first rival the dominance of Microsoft Windows in some cases.

Linux support many Perkakasan Computer, and has been used in a variety of equipment from personal computers to supercomputers and Embedded Systems (Embedded Systems) (such as Telefon Mudahalih and Tivo Personal Video Recorder).

At first, he created and used by devotees only. Now Linux has gained support from large companies like IBM, and Hewlett-Packarddan other big companies. The analyzer is due to glory point because Linus does not depend on the vendor (vendor-independence), perkakasan low cost, and kepantasannya versus proprietary versions of UNIX, as well as the factor of safety and stability compared with Microsoft Windows. These characteristics also be evidence of the benefits of open source development model.

The Linux kernel was originally written as a hobby by Linus Torvalds Finland university students who study at the University of Helsinki, to make Minix kernel is free and can edit. (Minix is ​​a Unix-like project lessons and instead cooked up for the easy to use commerce.) Version 0:01 issued to the Internet in September 1991, Version 12:02 on October 5, 1991. [1]

Next, the author of thousands of volunteer programs around the world have accompanied this project.
History of the Linux operating system based on Arat associated with the GNU project, project-known free program is chaired by Richard Stallman. GNU Project began in 1983 to create a complete Unix-like operating systems - compilers, utility applications, utility construction and so forth - composed entirely by the Free Program. In 1991, when the first version of Linux framework written, the project GNU project has produced almost all of the components of this system - except the kernel. Torvalds and the Linux kernel as builders adjust their kernel in order to work with GNU components, and so issued the Operating System that is quite functional. By it, Linux is completing the last room in the design of GNU.

Although the Linux kernel is licensed under the GNU General Public License, he instead of from the GNU project.
Tux, a penguin, a logo and mascot for Linux. Linux is tandaniaga (SN: 1916230) owned by Linus Torvalds. Linux is listed as a "computer operating system program for computer use and operation". This applies Tandaniaga diletak after an incident in which a forger named William R Della Croce Jr. leads first letter to the dealers who megklaim tandaniaga Linux Linux is hers and asked for a royalty of 10% of them. Linux dealers began pushing for the origin tandaniaga given to Linus Torvalds. Tandaniaga Linux licensing is now controlled by the Linux Mark Institute.

Linux Distributions
See also the Linux Distribution
There are a lot of circulars or Linux distribution (known better as distro), made by individuals, groups, and other institutions. Each masingnya might be included with the system program and an additional application programs, in addition to include a program to install the whole system in a new computer.

For each circular core of Linux is the Linux Kernel, a collection of programs from the GNU project (or other project), shell, and aturcara utilities such as libraries (libraries), compilers, and Editor (editor). Most systems also include aturcara and non-GNU utilities, however, these utilities can be isolated and still provides a Unix-style systems. Some examples are aturcara and utilities from BSD and X-Window System (X-Window System). X provides Antaramuka Graph (GUI) that the principle for Linux systems.

Applications based on Linux Operating System
Linux users, who are tradition need to install and configure the system itself, are more likely to understand the technology than users of Microsoft Windows or Mac OS. They are often called "hackers" or "geek". But the stereotype is increasingly reduced with the increase in user-friendly nature and growing extent of circular Linux users. Linux has made a rather good achievement in the server computer market and special purpose computer. For example, rendering engine, and web services. Linux is also gaining in popularity in the market the computer "desktop".

Linux is a principle to the combination of LAMP-server program, short for Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl / PHP, Python. LAMP has achieved wide popularity among Web developers.

Linux is also often used as an Embedded Operating System. The cost of the cheap Linux allows its use in equipment such as the Simputer, a low cost computer that is targeted at low-income residents in Developing Countries.

With Persekitaran Desktop as KDE and GNOME, Linux offers a user interface more like Apple Macintosh or Microsoft Windows from the Referral Line Interface such as Unix. Indeed, more graphics program can be found on Linux, which offers a variety of functions that exist in commercial utility.

Market and dapatpakai
Linux was originally just an operating system that is used by computer enthusiasts, has become the system more user-friendly, with charts antaramuka variety of applications that more closely resemble other consumer operating systems, from Unix referral line. However, this impression has given rise to lively criticism, including from the proponent of Linux. They argue that Linux and free program project has yet to reach a satisfactory ke'dapatpakai'an factor. The question of ke'dapatpakai'an Linux versus Windows or Macintosh is still an issue of heated debate. Linux market in the computer "desktop" is still rather small but growing. Institute for Market According to IDC, a large market for Linux in 2002 was 25% for the server market, and 2.8% for the personal computer market.

For those who just plain using Windows or Macintosh, Linux may seem more difficult due to differences in performing various computer work. And again, it is easier to find technical support for Windows or Mac OS than Linux. Additionally, the user typically need to exchange programs that are often used, because the program is not found in Linux (or the options are somewhat limited, especially computer games). Another factor is the nature hesitant users who find it hard to let go of their operating system (many users are still using the old Windows versions). In addition, most computers shipped with Windows ready installed (preinstalled). These factors led to the development of Linux is rather slow.

However, the advantages of Linux as a low cost, safer securities, and not rely on vendors, has been promoting the widespread use among the cooperatives and the kingdom. In this situation, the obstacles mentioned above can be reduced since only the application / utility that is of limited use, as well as computer pentadbiran work (administration) is controlled by a group of IT experts working a bit.

There are various studies conducted limited costs and ke'dapatpakai'an Linux. Relevantive, (an institute based in Berlin, which specializes in agency talks about ke'dapatpakai'an program, as well as web services), has made the conclusion bahawa ke'dapatpakai'an Linux to work with the computer "desktop" is almost identical to Windows XP . However, the study by IDC (funded by Microsoft) claims that Linux has a cost of ownership (Total Cost of Ownership) is higher compared to Windows.

Linux is also often criticized for its construction schedule unpredictable. Directly, causing less selesa Enterprise users with operating systems other than Linux (Source: Marcinkowski, 2003). The options are many in the circular Linux is also said to confuse the consumer, and vendor programs.

Difficult installation process is often a barrier for new users, but the process is now becoming easier lately. With the acceptance of Linux by some expenditures PC (personal computer), the largest, computer-pairs with circular disedia Linux can be found. There are also circular Linux where Linux is booted from the Live CD to continue without the need to put it into the Hard Disk. Examples of circular-shaped Linux Live CD is Knoppix / Gnoppix and Gentoo. ISO images to CD for Linux is usually circular can be loaded down from the Internet, written to a CD, and then membootkan CD.

For most Linux configuration settings is often necessary to menerusi editing text files in the directory / etc. There are also utilities like Linuxconf and GNOME System Tools are intended to facilitate the work by providing antaramuka charts. But the row direction is the most commonly used.

Support for Linux is usually obtained menerusi peer (in this context is intended movement in talian) - other Linux users on the Internet forums, newsgroups and list mel. A collection of Linux users (LUG, Linux User Group) was founded in sulurh world to help local users, new users and experienced users. Assistance including installation, usage, implementation and encourage the development of Linux systems.

Commercial provisioning for Linux in general circulation models of the practice of commerce by providing support. Third party support is also available

Scale Linux Development
A study (More Than a Gigabuck: estimating the GNU / Linux 's Size [2]) against Red Hat Linux 7.1 found that this circular contains 30 million lines of source code (''source lines of code (SLOC )''). Using the COCOMO cost model of this study show that this circular requires the development time as much as 8,000 years, when the software was developed by conventional proprietasi. And will take approximately 1:08 billion dollars (2000 dollars) to be developed in the United States.

The majority of the code (71%) written in C, but many other languages ​​are used, including C + + shell scripts, Lisp, assembly language, Perl, Fortran and Python.
About half of the licensed code under the GPL.
Linux kernel contained 2.4 million lines of code, or about 8% of the total, showed the circular that the majority of Linux consists of code that is not contained in the Linux Kernel.

"GNU / Linux"
See Naming controversy GNU / Linux
Due to utility-utility from the GNU free operating system project - without this Linux system will not resemble Unix systems in a user's perspective - Richard Stallman of GNU / FSF request that the combination of the system (the GNU project and Linux kernel), referred to as "GNU / Linux". Circulars Linux Users of Debian project is more likely to use the name. Most users more easily using the term "Linux".

Measures Law (Litigation)
Main article: SCO vs. IBM Mac In 2003, the SCO set (SCOG - SCO Group) has issued a warrant terbatasap IBM claiming that IBM has incorporated the intellectual property of the material SCOG into the Linux kernel, where it is a violation of IBM's license to terbatasap use UNIX. The license is said to be held by a set of SCO. Moreover, the set of SCO has also sent letters to several institutions and warn of the use of Linux without a license from SCO collection will receive from their actions. Collection of the SCO also issued a statement to the media that they would menyaman next Linux users. This controversy has been some criticism by a set of trigger terbatasap SCO Novell, DaimlerChrysler, and AutoZone, besides saman behind by Red Hat and others terbatasap SCOG.

Sources: http://www.awali.org

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